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Author Topic: The Heart of Martial Arts  (Read 58458 times)

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Offline Sylin1985

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #190 on: November 09, 2016, 07:26:30 AM »
Was watching olympics couple of months ago and fell in love with judo.

Offline hazim

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #189 on: July 22, 2015, 08:26:53 AM »
which is the strongest martial art in the world do any of you know

Offline kiritoxasuna

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #188 on: October 05, 2013, 07:28:11 PM »
great! thanks for the information

Offline NoFancy

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #187 on: September 30, 2013, 02:19:36 PM »
Simply Brutal

Offline masterjack

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #186 on: July 27, 2013, 02:29:14 AM »
I have heard that wing chun is pretty good, it was the same martial art that Bruce Lee used before he created Jeet Kune Do :D

Offline dl.GET

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #185 on: July 15, 2011, 01:32:06 AM »
What kind of martial arts do you like? Boxing, Muay Thai, Brazilian Jui-jitsu
Do you practice martial arts and what style do you practice/weapons do you use? Boxing and Jui-jitsu
What is your favourite style? freestyle
What is your favorite weapon? body of steel
Do you "belive" in martial arts? yes. it drives a person to understand more about their physical and mental capabilities.

Offline A84cus

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #184 on: February 24, 2011, 11:08:44 PM »
I want to join too..........

I practiced mostly of martial arts that I know...... currently trying to deepen the aikido.......

I used two sword style....... I practiced iai but not too deep. because mostly I use both my hand wield sword.....(mostly katana)

but I too have many old Indonesia style martial arts....... its a bit complicated to learn... :sob:

Offline animejunkie

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #183 on: June 22, 2010, 06:40:46 AM »
lol why thank you, btw do you participate in a martial arts?

Offline Henchy432

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #182 on: June 22, 2010, 06:38:51 AM »
hello im new here though i used to teach chinese kung fu and tai chi, and even though i teach in america the style i taught was almost the same as they did in china, though it was moved to korea after Communism came into power.  The thing that i found most impressive is what brought about that style of martial arts, such as how kung fu was originally derived from yoga, with the intent to let monks (who sat around all day copying books) stretch and get into shape so that they could live a longer and healthier life.

This is true. Welcome to the cage.

Offline animejunkie

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #181 on: June 22, 2010, 03:06:15 AM »
hello im new here though i used to teach chinese kung fu and tai chi, and even though i teach in america the style i taught was almost the same as they did in china, though it was moved to korea after Communism came into power.  The thing that i found most impressive is what brought about that style of martial arts, such as how kung fu was originally derived from yoga, with the intent to let monks (who sat around all day copying books) stretch and get into shape so that they could live a longer and healthier life.

Offline R3dknight

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Re: The Heart of Martial Arts
« Reply #180 on: April 18, 2009, 10:16:37 PM »
We (jCafe people) need to meet up in 5 or so years in Japan. I think many of us are living at Japan at that time xD
Jcafe fightclub?
awesome.


wathiroth

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Aikido
« Reply #179 on: April 13, 2009, 11:21:02 PM »
Aikido



Aikido (合気道, literally - the Way of unifying (with) life energy - the Way of harmonious spirit) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury.

Aikido is performed by blending with the motion of the attacker and redirecting the force of the attack rather than opposing it head-on. This requires very little physical energy, as the aikidoka "leads" the attacker's momentum using entering and turning movements. The techniques are completed with various throws or joint locks. Aikido can be categorized under the general umbrella of grappling arts.

Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu. Many of Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending on when they studied with him. Today aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques learned from Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker. This attitude has been at the core of criticisms of aikido and related arts.

Etymology and basic philosophy

The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji:

    * 合 - ai - joining, harmonizing
    * 気 - ki - spirit, life energy
    * 道 - dō - way, path

The term dō connects the practice of aikido with the philosophical concept of Tao, which can be found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, and in more peaceful arts such as Japanese calligraphy (shodō), flower arranging (kadō) and tea ceremony (chadō or sadō). The term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort. One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique. Historically, aiki was mastered for the purpose of killing; however in aikido one seeks to control an aggressor without causing harm. The founder of aikido declared: "To control aggression without inflicting injury is the Art of Peace." A number of aikido practitioners interpret aikido metaphorically, seeing parallels between aikido techniques and other methods for conflict resolution. These kanji are identical to the Korean versions of the characters that form the word hapkido, a Korean martial art. Although there are no known direct connections between the two arts, it is suspected that the founders of both arts trained in Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu.

History



Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba (植芝盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, 14 December 1883–26 April 1969). Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but also an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the koryū (old-style martial arts) that Ueshiba studied into a wide variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world.

Initial development
Ueshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied. The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sokaku, the reviver of that art. Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyū Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, and judo with Kiyoichi Takagi (高木喜代子 Takagi Kiyoichi, 1894–1972) in Tanabe in 1911.

The art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido. Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear (yari), short staff (jō), and perhaps the bayonet (銃剣, jūken). However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship.

Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915. His official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937. However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budō". It is unclear exactly when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society (Dai Nippon Butoku Kai) was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts.

Religious influences
After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion (a neo-Shinto movement) in Ayabe. One of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life. This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion especially to those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution, not only is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker.

In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist. As a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but also gifted students. Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido.

Training



In aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training. The physical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techniques. Because a substantial portion of any aikido curriculum consists of throws, the first thing most students learn is how to safely fall or roll. The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs; the techniques for defense consist of throws and pins. After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defense against multiple opponents, and in certain styles, techniques with weapons.

Roles of uke and nage
Aikido training is based primarily on two partners practicing pre-arranged forms (kata) rather than freestyle practice. The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke) to initiate an attack against the thrower (投げ nage, also referred to as 取り tori, or 仕手 shite, depending on aikido style), who neutralises this attack with an aikido technique.

Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of nage, are considered essential to aikido training. Both are studying aikido principles of blending and adaptation. Nage learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which nage places them. This "receiving" of the technique is called ukemi. Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e.g., an exposed side), while nage uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply reversal techniques to regain balance and pin or throw nage.

Ukemi refers to the act of receiving a technique. Good ukemi involves a parry or breakfall that is used to avoid pain or injury, such as joint dislocations or atemi.

Implementations
Aikido makes use of body movement to blend with uke. For example, an "entering" technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a "turning" technique uses a pivoting motion. Additionally, an "inside" technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an "outside" technique takes place to his side; a "front" technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a "rear" version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza). Seated techniques are called suwari-waza.

Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations. For instance, ikkyō can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version). Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula "attack-technique(-modifier)". For instance, katate-dori ikkyō refers to any ikkyō technique executed when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyō omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyō technique from that grab.

Atemi (当て身) are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique. Some view atemi as attacks against "vital points" meant to cause damage in and of themselves. For instance, Gōzō Shioda described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang's leader. Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques. A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and break his or her concentration. The target may also become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw. Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique.

Weapons
Weapons training in aikido traditionally includes the short staff (jō), wooden sword (bokken), and knife (tantō). Today, some schools also incorporate firearms-disarming techniques. Both weapon-taking and weapon-retention are sometimes taught, to integrate armed and unarmed aspects, although some schools of aikido do not train with weapons at all. Others, such as the Iwama style of Morihiro Saito, usually spend substantial time with bokken and jō, practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-jō, respectively. The founder developed much of empty handed aikido from traditional sword and spear movements, so the practice of these movements is generally for the purpose of giving insight into the origin of techniques and movements, as well as vital practice of these basic building blocks.

Multiple attackers and randori
One feature of aikido is training to defend against multiple attackers, often called taninzudori, or taninzugake. Freestyle (randori, or jiyūwaza) practice with multiple attackers is a key part of most curricula and is required for the higher level ranks. Randori exercises a person's ability to intuitively perform techniques in an unstructured environment. Strategic choice of techniques, based on how they reposition the student relative to other attackers, is important in randori training. For instance, an ura technique might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers approaching from behind.

In Shodokan Aikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants attack, defend, and counter at will. In this respect it resembles judo randori.

Mental training
Aikido training is mental as well as physical, emphasizing the ability to relax the mind and body even under the stress of dangerous situations. This is necessary to enable the practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido techniques, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness. Morihei Ueshiba once remarked that one "must be willing to receive 99% of an opponent's attack and stare death in the face" in order to execute techniques without hesitation. As a martial art concerned not only with fighting proficiency but also with the betterment of daily life, this mental aspect is of key importance to aikido practitioners.

Ki



The study of ki is a critical component of aikido, and its study defies categorization as either "physical" or "mental" training, as it encompasses both. The original kanji for ki was 氣, and is a symbolic representation of a lid covering a pot full of rice; the "nourishing vapors" contained within are ki.

The character for ki is used in everyday Japanese terms, such as "health", or "shyness". Ki is most often understood as unified physical and mental intention, however in traditional martial arts it is often discussed as "life energy". Gōzō Shioda's Yoshinkan Aikido, considered one of the "hard styles," largely follows Ueshiba's teachings from before World War II, and surmises that the secret to ki lies in timing and the application of the whole body's strength to a single point. In later years, Ueshiba's application of ki in aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel. This was his Takemusu Aiki and many of his later students teach about ki from this perspective. Koichi Tohei's Ki Society centers almost exclusively around the study of the empirical (albeit subjective) experience of ki with students ranked separately in aikido techniques and ki development.

Videos
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Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #178 on: April 13, 2009, 01:18:00 AM »
:XD: Yeah that's a great idea.
Besides it'll probably happen

wathiroth

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #177 on: April 13, 2009, 01:06:34 AM »
We (jCafe people) need to meet up in 5 or so years in Japan. I think many of us are living at Japan at that time xD

Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #176 on: April 12, 2009, 11:35:38 PM »
Where would you like to move?

Japan. I went there and loved it. Also the culture is just fantastic. I'm trying to get into a university and from there to Japan.
I think everyone here wants to go to Japan :yay:

wathiroth

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #175 on: April 12, 2009, 11:31:02 PM »
What the hell is going on in Finland?
Some of them are still at the "barbarian" state! =O

Most fights end up on the ground. A lot of brawlers want to take you down.
The more unskilled the fight, the more often it happens. And when the skill level is high, it's still possible but then the fights usually end very fast.

I'm trying to move away from this country ASAP.
Where would you like to move?

Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #174 on: April 12, 2009, 11:18:03 PM »
What the hell is going on in Finland?

Finland was at the top of the "most violent assaults in a country" list. Finland is a small country and there are a lot of assaults. There are a lot of prejudiced people here and moral decay. I'm trying to move away from this country ASAP.

Offline Henchy432

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #173 on: April 12, 2009, 11:13:32 PM »

Sometimes you can't avoid getting into fights, for instance in Finland you can just be walking around minding your own business and some idiot just wants to fight you and starts attacking you for no apparent reason. I've been in these situations and have managed to get out of them without getting hurt/hurting the other person. Like Wathiroth said, a wise person doesn't need to fight at all.

What the hell is going on in Finland?

Anyway, this is where Brazilian Jujitsu comes in handy. Most fights end up on the ground. A lot of brawlers want to take you down. If its a group you are going against, you are fucked. If you can grab and toss the guy. Do it into a wall and then pound his face.

wathiroth

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #172 on: April 12, 2009, 11:07:07 PM »
And while on ground, if he gets out a knife from his pocket, it's gonna be bad. Or there are more people and they come kick you while you're on the ground. Besides, the more impact beating one of them has, the more psychologically effective it is to the other guys. Even a moment of hesitation from the opponent could be very bad for him.

Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #171 on: April 12, 2009, 11:01:22 PM »
That's true if you're not good at them. To you high kicks in a real fight, you need to train it ALOT. There are techniques which you can use right away, but the better you want to be, and the more time you're willing to spend on training, the more carefully you need to think of what to practice. Using certain techniques will only take you so far. Other techniques, you need to practice for years before it's wise to use them for real. Though a wise person wouldn't need to fight at all ^^;

I'm with you on this one.

Besides if you do get in a fight, how insanely cool would it be to do a flashy kick to beat your opponent rather than start having gay sex with him on the ground?

Sometimes you can't avoid getting into fights, for instance in Finland you can just be walking around minding your own business and some idiot just wants to fight you and starts attacking you for no apparent reason. I've been in these situations and have managed to get out of them without getting hurt/hurting the other person. Like Wathiroth said, a wise person doesn't need to fight at all.

wathiroth

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #170 on: April 12, 2009, 10:49:29 PM »
Some new pictures / videos added at Bajiquan introduction. Links are in the first post. Conversations on introduced martial arts highly encoureged! If you have any question on martial arts, don't hesitate to ask. That's what this club is here for!

High kicks in really life street fights will land you on you ass.
That's true if you're not good at them. To you high kicks in a real fight, you need to train it ALOT. There are techniques which you can use right away, but the better you want to be, and the more time you're willing to spend on training, the more carefully you need to think of what to practice. Using certain techniques will only take you so far. Other techniques, you need to practice for years before it's wise to use them for real. Though a wise person wouldn't need to fight at all ^^;

Offline Henchy432

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #169 on: April 12, 2009, 10:23:59 PM »
A girl I was living with, her father was a 6th dan in Goju-ryu. I liked the grappling and whipping techniques. Also, there is never any high kicks. High kicks in really life street fights will land you on you ass.
 

Gōjū-ryū
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wathiroth

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Judo
« Reply #168 on: April 12, 2009, 10:17:00 PM »
Judo



Judo (柔道, literally "gentle way") is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budo) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling manoeuvre, or force an opponent to submit by joint locking the elbow or by executing a choke. Strikes and thrusts (by hands and feet) — as well as weapons defences — are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori).

Ultimately, the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for almost all modern Japanese martial arts that developed from "traditional" schools (koryū). Practitioners of judo are called judoka.

History and philosophy
Early life of the founder
The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Jigoro Kano (嘉納 治五郎 Kanō Jigorō, 1860–1938). Kano was born into a well-to-do Japanese family. His grandfather was a self-made man: a sake brewer from Shiga prefecture in central Japan. However, Kano's father was not the eldest son and therefore did not inherit the business. Instead, he became a Shinto priest and government official, with enough influence for his son to enter the second incoming class of Tokyo Imperial University.

Founder pursues jujutsu
Kano was a small, frail boy, who, even in his twenties, did not weigh more than 45 kg (a hundred pounds), and was often picked on by bullies. He first started pursuing jujutsu, at that time a dying art, at the age of 17, but met with little success. This was in part due to difficulties finding a teacher who would take him on as a student. When he went to university to study literature at the age of 18, he continued his martial arts studies, eventually gaining a referral to Fukuda Hachinosuke (c.1828–c.1880), a master of the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū and grandfather of Keiko Fukuda (born 1913), who is Kano's only surviving student, and the highest-ranking female jūdōka in the world. Fukuda Hachinosuke is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis of free practice (randori) in judo.

A little more than a year after Kano joined Fukuda's school, Fukuda became ill and died. Kano then became a student in another Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school, that of Iso Masatomo (c.1820–c.1881), who put more emphasis on the practice of pre-arranged forms (kata) than Fukuda had. Through dedication, Kano quickly earned the title of master instructor (shihan) and became assistant instructor to Iso at the age of 21. Unfortunately, Iso soon took ill, and Kano, feeling that he still had much to learn, took up another style, becoming a student of Iikubo Tsunetoshi (1835–1889) of Kitō-ryū. Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on free practice. On the other hand, Kitō-ryū emphasized throwing techniques to a much greater degree than Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū.

Founding
By this time, Kano was devising new techniques, such as the "shoulder wheel" (kata-guruma, known as a fireman's carry to Western wrestlers who use a slightly different form of this technique) and the "floating hip" (uki goshi) throw. However, he was already thinking about doing far more than just expanding the canons of Kitō-ryū and Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū. Full of new ideas, Kano had in mind a major reformation of jujutsu, with techniques based on sound scientific principles, and with focus on development of the body, mind and character of young men in addition to development of martial prowess. At the age of 22, when he was just about to finish his degree at the University, Kano took nine students from Iikubo's school to study jujutsu under him at the Eisho-ji, a Buddhist temple in Kamakura, and Iikubo came to the temple three days a week to help teach. Although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name "Kodokan", or "place for teaching the way", and Kano had not yet been accorded the title of "master" in the Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan's founding.

Judo was originally known as Kano Jiu-Jitsu or Kano Jiu-Do, and later as Kodokan Jiu-Do or simply Jiu-Do or Judo. In the early days, it was also still referred to generically simply as Jiu-Jitsu.

Meaning of "judo"
The word "judo" shares the same root ideogram as "jujutsu": "jū" (柔 ?), which may mean "gentleness", "softness", "suppleness", and even "easy", depending on its context. Such attempts to translate jū are deceptive, however. The use of jū in each of these words is an explicit reference to the martial arts principle of the "soft method" (柔法 ,jūhō?). The soft method is characterized by the indirect application of force to defeat an opponent. More specifically, it is the principle of using one's opponent's strength against him and adapting well to changing circumstances. For example, if the attacker was to push against his opponent he would find his opponent stepping to the side and allowing his momentum (often with the aid of a foot to trip him up) to throw him forwards (the inverse being true for pulling.) Kano saw jujutsu as a disconnected bag of tricks, and sought to unify it according to a principle, which he found in the notion of "maximum efficiency". Jujutsu techniques that relied solely on superior strength were discarded or adapted in favour of those that involved redirecting the opponent's force, off-balancing the opponent, or making use of superior leverage.

The second characters of judo and jujutsu differ. Where jujutsu (柔術 ,jūjutsu?) means the "art" or "science" of softness, judo (柔道 ,jūdō?) means the "way" of softness. The use of "dō" (道 ?), meaning way, road or path (and is the same character as the Chinese word "tao"), has philosophical overtones. This is the same distinction as is made between Budō and Bujutsu. Use of this word is a deliberate departure from ancient martial arts, whose sole purpose was for killing. Kano saw judo as a means for governing and improving oneself physically, mentally, emotionally and morally. He even extended the physical principle of maximum efficiency into daily life, evolving it into "mutual prosperity". In this respect, judo is seen as a holistic approach to life extending well beyond the confines of the dojo.

Techniques & practice

While judo includes a variety of rolls, falls, throws, hold downs, chokes, joint-locks, and strikes, the primary focus is on throwing, and groundwork. Throws are divided in two groups of techniques, standing techniques, and sacrifice techniques. Standing techniques are further divided into hand techniques, hip techniques, and foot and leg techniques. Sacrifice techniques are divided into those in which the thrower falls directly backwards, and those in which he falls onto his side.

The ground fighting techniques are divided into attacks against the joints or joint locks, strangleholds or chokeholds, and holding or pinning techniques.

A kind of sparring is practised in judo, known as randori, meaning "free practice". In randori no kata, two adversaries may attack each other with any judo throw or grappling technique. Striking techniques such as kicking and punching, along with knife and sword techniques are retained in the kata. This form of pedagogy is usually reserved for higher ranking practitioners, but are forbidden in contest, and usually prohibited in randori for reasons of safety. Also for reasons of safety, chokeholds, joint locking, and the sacrifice techniques are subject to age or rank restrictions. For example, in the United States one must be 13 or older to use chokeholds, and 16 or older to use armlocks.

In randori and tournament practice, when an opponent successfully executes a chokehold or joint lock, one submits, or "taps out", by tapping the mat or one's opponent at least twice in a manner that clearly indicates the submission. When this occurs the match is over, the tapping player has lost, and the chokehold or joint lock ceases.

Kata
Forms (kata) are pre-arranged patterns of attack and defence, which in judo are practised with a partner for the purpose of perfecting judo techniques. More specifically, their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in competition, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo.

Knowledge of various kata is a requirement for the attainment of a higher rank.

There are seven kata that are recognised by the Kodokan today:

    * Free practice forms (Randori no Kata), comprising two kata:
          o Throwing forms (Nage no Kata)
          o Grappling forms (Katame no Kata)
    * Old style self-defence forms (Kime no Kata)
    * Modern self-defence forms (Kodokan Goshin Jutsu)
    * Forms of "gentleness" (Ju no Kata)
    * The five forms (Itsutsu no Kata)
    * Ancient forms (Koshiki no Kata)
    * Maximum-efficiency national physical education kata (Seiryoku Zen'yō Kokumin Taiiku no Kata)

There are also other kata that are not officially recognised by the Kodokan but that continue to be practised. The most prominent example of these is the Go no sen no kata, a kata that focuses on counter-attacks to attempted throws.

Randori (sparring)
Judo emphasizes a free-style sparring, called randori, as one of its main forms of training. Part of the combat time is spent sparring standing up, called tachi-waza, and the other part on the ground, called ne-waza. Sparring, even subject to safety rules, is much more practically effective than only practicing techniques on their own, which is what jujutsuka were used to doing. Using full strength develops the muscles and cardio-vascular system on the physical side of things, and it develops strategy and reaction time on the mental side of things, and helps the practitioner learn to use techniques against a resisting opponent. A common saying among judoka is "The best training for judo is judo."

There are several types of sparring exercises, such as ju renshu (both judoka attack in a very gentle way where no resistance is applied); and kakari geiko (only one judoka attacks while the other one relies solely on defensive and evasive techniques, but without the use of sheer strength.)

Combat phases

In judo, there are two main phases of combat: the standing (tachi-waza) and the ground (ne-waza) phase. Each phase requires its own (mostly separate) techniques, strategies, randori, conditioning and so on. Special training is also devoted to "transitional" techniques to bridge the gap. Jūdōka may become quite skilled in one phase and be rather weak in the other, depending on where their interests most lie, although most are balanced between the two.

Judo's balance between both the standing and ground phases of combat gives judoka the ability to take down opponents who are standing up and then pin and submit them on the ground. This balanced theory of combat has made judo a popular choice of martial art or combat sport.

Standing phase
In the standing phase, which has primacy according to the contest rules, the opponents attempt to throw each other. Although standing joint-lock and choke/strangulation submission techniques are legal in the standing phase, they are quite rare due to the fact that they are much harder to apply standing than throws are. Some jūdōka, however, are very skilled in combining takedowns with submissions, where a submission technique is begun standing and finished on the ground.

Strikes (i.e. punches, kicks, etc...) are not allowed due to their certainty of injury, but an athlete is supposed to "take them into consideration" while training by, for example, not fighting in a bent-over position for long, since this position is vulnerable to knee-strikes and other striking attacks.

The main purpose of the throwing techniques (nage waza) is to take an opponent who is standing on his feet, mobile and dangerous, down onto his back where he cannot move as effectively. Thus, the main reason for throwing the opponent is to control the opponent and to put oneself in a dominant position. In this way the practitioner has more potential to render a decisive outcome. Another reason to throw the opponent is to shock his body through smashing him forcefully onto the ground. If an opponent executes a powerful yet fully controlled throw, he can win a match outright (by ippon) on the basis that he has displayed sufficient superiority. A lower score is given for lesser throws. A score for a throw is only given when executed starting from a standing position.

In keeping with Kano's emphasis on scientific analysis and reasoning, the standard Kodokan judo pedagogy dictates that any throwing technique is theoretically a four phased event: off-balancing; body positioning; execution; and finally the finish. Each phase follows the previous one with great rapidity — ideally they happen almost simultaneously.

Ground phase
In competition, combat may continue on the ground after a throw occurs or if the contestants otherwise legally end up on the ground; a contestant is not allowed to simply drop to the ground to commence ground fighting.[9]

On the ground, the contestants aim to either obtain a hold down, or to get their opponent to submit either by using a choke or strangulation or armlock (locks on joints other than the elbow are not allowed for safety reasons.)

Hold downs
Hold downs are important since in a real fight the person who has control of his opponent can hit him with punches, knees, headbutts, and other strikes. If osaekomi is maintained for twenty-five seconds, the person doing the holding down wins the match. An osaekomi involves holding an opponent principally on their back, and free of their legs.

According to the rules as they stood in 1905, it was only necessary to hold down an opponent, on his shoulders, for two seconds — said to reflect the time necessary for a samurai to reach his knife or sword and dispatch his held opponent. The newer longer requirements reflect the combat reality that a fighter must immobilize his opponent for a substantial amount of time in order to strike effectively.

The score for a hold down is determined by how long the hold down is held. A hold down may sometimes result in a submission if the opponent cannot endure the pressure from the hold down.

The 'body scissors'
If the person being held down has wrapped his legs around any part of his opponent's lower body or trunk, he is pinning his opponent as much as he is being pinned, because his opponent cannot get up and flee unless the person on the bottom lets go. While his legs are wrapped around his opponent, the person on the bottom can employ various attacking techniques, including strangles, armlocks and "body scissors", while controlling the opponent so that he cannot effectively strike from above. In this position, referred to as'do-osae'" in Japanese, meaning "trunk hold", the person on top does not have enough control over his adversary for the position to be considered osaekomi. (Note that while the guard is commonly used, do-jime is no longer legal in competition judo.) The person on top can try to pass his opponent's legs and in turn hold down or submit him, or he may try to break out of his opponent's guard and stand up. The person on the bottom can try to submit his opponent from his guard or roll his opponent over to get on top of him.

Joint locks
Joint locks are effective combat techniques because they enable a jūdōka to control his opponent through pain-compliance, or if necessary, to cause breakage of the locked joint. Joint locks on the elbow are considered safe enough to perform at nearly full-force in competition to force submission from one's opponent. Judo has, in the past, allowed leglocks, wristlocks, spinal locks and various other techniques that have since been disallowed in competition to protect athletes' safety. It was decided that attacking those joints would result in many injuries to the athletes and would cause a gradual deterioration of these joints. Even so, some jūdōka still enjoy learning and fighting each other informally using these techniques that are banned from formal competitions, and many of these techniques are still actively used in other arts such as sambo, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, and jujutsu.

Chokes and strangulations
Chokes and strangulations enable the person applying the choke to force the adversary into unconsciousness and even death. Strangulation cuts off the blood supply to the brain via compression on the sides of the neck, while a choke blocks the airway from the front of the neck. The terms are frequently interchangeable in common usage, and a formal differentiation is not made by most jūdōka. In competition, the jūdōka wins if the opponent submits or becomes unconscious. A strangle, once properly locked in, can render an opponent unconscious in only a few seconds, but normally causes no injury.

As a sport

Although a fully featured martial art, judo has also developed as a sport.

The first time judo was seen in the Olympics was at the 1932 Games in Los Angeles, where Kano and about 200 judo students gave a demonstration. Judo became an Olympic sport for men in the 1964 Games in Tokyo. With the persistence of Rusty Kanokogi, an American, and many others, judo became an Olympic sport for women as well in 1988. It is often stated that the men's judo event in 1964 was a demonstration event, but according to the International Judo Federation (IJF) and International Olympic Committee, Judo was in fact an official sport in the 1964 games. Dutchman Anton Geesink won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of Judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga of Japan. Judo then lost the image of being "Japanese only" and went on to become one of the most widely practised sports in the world. The women's event was a demonstration event in 1988, and became an official medal event 4 years later. Men and women compete separately, although they often train together. Judo has been a Paralympic sport (for the visually impaired) since 1988. Judo is also one of the sports at the Special Olympics.

Collegiate competition in the United States, especially between UC Berkeley and San Jose State, contributed towards refining judo into the sport seen at the Olympic Games and World Championships. In the 1940s Henry Stone and Yosh Uchida, the head coaches at Cal and SJSU, developed a weight class system for use in the frequent competitions between the schools. In 1953, Stone and Uchida successfully petitioned the Amateur Athletic Union to accept judo as a sport, with their weight class system as an official component. In 1961, Uchida represented the United States at the IJF meetings in Paris, where the IJF adopted weight classes for all future championships. The IJF was created largely based on the earlier European Judo Union, where weight classes had also been used for many years.

As self-defense

Judo has formed the basis for many military combatives and defensive tactics training around the world. The Japanese police have trained in Judo since 1886, when Judo (at the time known merely as Kano Jujitsu) defeated several other established schools of Jujitsu in a tournament.

In addition to the above, Judo's background in traditional Jujitsu combined with its police and military applications, has resulted in kata specifically designed to teach technical principles for self-defense: Kime No Kata (Forms of Decision) and Kodokan Goshin Jutsu (Forms of Self Defense).

Various aspects of Judo principles and training methods promote attributes and skills helpful in self-defense:

    * Training with full power and speed against fully-resisting opponents: builds speed, stamina, strength, and tenacity.
    * Body and mental conditioning by repeatedly being thrown with significant force.
    * Training in safe methods to take falls.
    * Ability to accurately and quickly use balance, distance, and timing against skilled opponents in fully-resistive sparring. Judo practitioners are experts in controlling their opponent's balance whilst maintaining their own.
    * Sports Judo rules emphasize rapid transition to pins or submissions after a take-down, which builds skills in explosive use of chokes and locks in self-defense situations.
    * Emphasis in controlling one's opponent during throws allow a practitioner to dictate the angle, direction, and force with which his or her opponent lands on the ground. The consequences could be gentle or lethal, depending on the Judo practitioner's intentions.

However, there are some criticisms about the use of Judo for self-defense training:

    * Over-reliance on using the Judo-gi (clothing): In order to train Judo for self-defense, it is necessary to have some experience in sparring against partners who are not wearing a gi. Fortunately, the amount of adaptation needed is minor, and many techniques do not strictly rely on grabbing the gi - indeed, some techniques (especially in groundwork or Ne Waza) do not use the gi at all.
    * Over-emphasis on the rules of sports Judo: Some Judo clubs or instructors teach Judo strictly in the context of sport.
    * Lack of striking techniques: Striking techniques in Judo are usually only taught to dan-grades (ie. black belts) for demonstrations and kata.

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Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #167 on: April 06, 2009, 04:31:03 AM »
Ok so I should've been a bit more accurate in what I meant. It wasn't only MMA I was referring to.

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #166 on: April 06, 2009, 03:19:45 AM »
MMA should start knife/sword/spear fighting duels...
And start calling it MDG (Modern Day Gladiators).

I really don't understand you half of the time. You're saying something isn't a martial art even though it's stated to be a martial art by people who are actual professionals.
I'm saying that just because it involves hitting and kicking doesn't make it martial arts. And MMA started as competition. It was competition for any martial artists, or not even martial artist, who wanted to try their skills against other martial artists.

These days MMA is pathetic, as a martial arts. I have nothing against it itself. Some people like boxing, some MMA, but you don't have to call it martial arts to make it sound cool. You can't call it ballet just because it would draw more attention to it (which I doubt it would). MMA is fine as it is, but it's no martial art. Martial artist can participate in it, but it in itself isn't martial arts.

In the end they're just names, but they need a name. But they shouldn't be put in same category. And the smartest would be to call them something that would actually decribe what they are. Sport that involves combat should be called combat sport, not martial art. Self defence arts are self defence arts. They're brutal really, but the idea is to defend yourself, nothing more. Self defence only reaches so far. Combat sports is a sport. No matter how good you're in it, you're only good at it, nothing else. If you're not happy to be good at combat sports, maybe you should do something else.

If you got some crab and spam for dinner it can be good as it is, you don't need to call it "Lobster Thermidor a Crevette with a mornay sauce served in a Provencale manner with shallots and aubergines garnished with truffle pate, brandy and with a fried egg on top and spam", if you know what I mean.

earlier form of European/Greece Boxing is awesome.
Pankration is awesome! Hot guys with little clothing, skin to skin =O ♥

Offline R3dknight

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #165 on: April 06, 2009, 12:36:57 AM »
earlier form of European/Greece Boxing is awesome.
before they brought gloves and rules.

Offline Henchy432

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #164 on: April 06, 2009, 12:28:37 AM »
That's why I said Asia.

Yes, but I also meant places like Brazil and Greece.

Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #163 on: April 06, 2009, 12:26:54 AM »
If you go far enough into a country. You can find places, that are untouched by outside forces. India still has it's form of martial arts, it relatively unknown and untouched.  

That's why I said Asia.

Offline Henchy432

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #162 on: April 06, 2009, 12:25:48 AM »
Actually it's not about country, but culture. The places that have been most assimilated into the western culture do this. Aka almost all of the world except Asia.
People hide the facts from true art. It might not go away but it gets changed into something that almost doesn't even resemble the original anymore.

If you go far enough into a country. You can find places, that are untouched by outside forces. India still has it's form of martial arts, it relatively unknown and untouched.   

Offline JustMax

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Re: Martial Arts Club!
« Reply #161 on: April 06, 2009, 12:22:13 AM »
True art never goes away. It just get refined. If you go to the homeland of the art, it's still strong. The US is a dumping ground for watered down Martial Arts.

 :dark:

Actually it's not about country, but culture. The places that have been most assimilated into the western culture do this. Aka almost all of the world except Asia.
People hide the facts from true art. It might not go away but it gets changed into something that almost doesn't even resemble the original anymore.